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双语科技百科(手产业) 第68期:活字印刷

公布于 2016-01-20 01:36   阅读 次  

Moveable Type Printig 活字印刷 The block printing technology in our country was probably invented in the seventh century, and reached its climax in the tenth century in the Song Dynasty. With the block printing technology, such procedures as writing samples,carving blocks, spraying the ink and printing were involved in the process of publishing a book, and it was always time-consuming and costly in the use of the material resources and manpower to print a work of great length. The procedures would have to be repeated if other books were to be published; hence our ancestors conducted active explorations and strived for improvements, which led to the eventual invention of the moveable clay-type printing technology by an ordinary man called Bi Sheng during the period of Qingli of the Northern Song Dynasty, as can be proved by the account of the book Dream Pool Essays by Bi Sheng's contemporary,Shen Kuo. From then on, the moveable type printing technology was applied, and it was 400 years earlier than that used in Europe when the German Gutenburg, for the first time, printed the Holy Bible with this very technology.During the period of Dade of the Yuan Dynasty, Wang Zhen learned to use the moveable wood types to print books, of which none has come down to the present day. The oldest moveable-type printed book in existence in China is Yushice in the Yuan Dynasty, which is now collected in the National Library of China. There are, because of the differences of the times and materials, different names for the moveable type printing,such as the moveable clay-type printing, magnetic printing, moveable wood-type plate, moveable copper-type printing, moveable lead-type printing and moveable zinc-type printing. In the years of Hongzhi of the Ming Dynasty, the moveable cop-per-type printing became prevalent in Wuxi, Suzhou, Changshu and Nanjing, Jian-gsu Province, but in the years between Tianqi and Congzhen of the Ming Dynasty when a social and economic decline was pervasive, lapsed into a low ebb due to its great economic cost, the corollary of which was that there were few moveable copper-type printed books handed down to the present day. There are over 100 kinds of books in existence which were printed with the cheap moveable wood types in the Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming Dynasty, the moveable wood-type printing gradually replaced the copper-type printing for the printing of the books.People at the time also learned to use the moveable zinc types to print books; un-fortunately, there was not any book of this kind left to the present day. The moveable wood-type printing was the mainstream in the Qing Dynasty, and a great number of books of this kind have been properly preserved. After the Opium War, the moveable zinc-type printing technology originating in the west was introduced into China. The new printing technology, given its great advantages over the traditional block printing and moveable type printing, replaced them gradually as the major type of printing books, and has been used to the modern times. 我国雕版印刷技能约莫创造于公元7世纪,到了10世纪的宋代到达壮盛。运用这种技能出书一套册本须颠末写样刻版、涂墨印刷等多道工序,假如是要印一部大著作,每每要破费少量的物力、人力和工夫。假设要再出书其他册本,这些工序又得重新来过,因而我们的先人积极探究,力图改良,终于在北宋庆积年间,布衣毕异创造了用胶泥活字印刷技能。此事纪录于与毕异同时期的沈括的《梦溪笔谈》一书中,今后活字印刷术开端运用了。它比欧洲开始用活字印《圣经》的德国谷腾堡要早400年。到了元代盛德年间,王桢创造了用木活字印书,惋惜这些都没有传本,国际现存最早的活字印刷实物是国度图书馆藏元朝的《御试策》。活字版因期间、资料差别而有差别的称号,有“泥活字版”、“磁板”、“木活字版”、“铜活字版”、“铅活字版”、“锡活字版”等等。明代弘治年间,在江苏的无锡、苏州、常熟、南京一带,铜活字印刷开端盛行起来。到了天启、崇祯时期,由于社会经济的衰落,铜活字印刷因经济本钱太猛进入高潮,很少有传本面世了。明代用木活字这种本钱价廉的印刷方法印制的册本现存有100多种,到了明代早期,木活字逐渐代替了铜活字印书。同时在明代还创造了用锡活字印书,惋惜无实物传世。木活字是清代活字印刷的主流,且有少量的木活字册本保管上去。鸦片和平当前,东方的铅活字印刷术传人我国,这种新型的印刷术比传统的雕版印刷和活字印刷有着较大的劣势,逐渐代替了雕版印刷和活字印刷的位置,成为印刷册本的最次要的方法,并不断相沿到古代。

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